Nacionales

Las juntas municipales tienen amplios poderes en comicios

Por Wanda Méndez

Santo Domingo, RD.- La Constitución y dos leyes otorgan poder a las juntas electorales en los procesos comiciales del nivel municipal, como el que celebrará la República Dominicana el próximo 16 de febrero para elegir los candidatos que ocuparán 3,849 cargos en los ayuntamientos del país, concernientes a alcaldes, regidores, director y vocales de juntas municipales.

Con rango constitucional, a partir de la Carta Magna del 2010,  estas entidades tienen dualidad de funciones: administrativas y contenciosas, las primeras  reguladas por la Ley 15-19, orgánica de régimen electoral, y  las segundas, por la Ley 29-11, orgánica del Tribunal Superior Electoral (TSE).

En el aspecto administrativo,  no solo son  responsables de admitir o rechazar las candidaturas en el nivel municipal, sino que les compete designar a los miembros de cada colegio electoral de su jurisdicción, velar por la distribución adecuada y oportuna de equipos y materiales, verificar el cómputo de votación y formular la relación general del municipio, así como  la relación de candidatos electos, expedir los certificados de elección y proclamarlos.  

En materia contenciosa, la Ley 29-11 le da categoría de tribunales de primer grado.  En tal virtud, les otorga potestad para anular las elecciones en uno o varios colegios electorales; dictar medidas cautelares para garantizar la protección del derecho al sufragio.

La ley le concede facultad al TSE para asignar otras competencias a las juntas electorales, por lo que  en su reglamento contencioso las facultó para conocer acción de amparo electoral para tutelar el derecho al sufragio de los ciudadanos de forma exclusiva el día de las elecciones.

También, para conocer las impugnaciones contra el nombramiento de miembros de colegios electorales; para decidir en primera instancia las protestas en el proceso de votación y los reparos que hagan los delegados de los partidos y agrupaciones que sustenten candidaturas el día de las votación en contra de los procedimientos sobre el cómputo electoral en cada demarcación.

Cuando las  decisiones de las juntas electorales generan controversias o inconformidades, por mandato constitucional y legal, solo pueden ser recurridas al TSE,  la Alta Corte especializada en materia electoral que creó la Constitución del 26 de enero 2010.

Para el proceso electoral de febrero,  las 158 juntas electorales admitieron 17,357 candidaturas y rechazaron 2,662.  El TSE fue apoderado de 292 recursos de apelación y de amparo contra resoluciones de esos organismos, tanto contra las que aceptaron propuestas de los partidos políticos como las rechazadas.

El tribunal electoral acogió la mayoría de los reclamos y ordenó a la JCE la inscripción de esos candidatos en la boleta electoral. La JCE  solo puede excluir candidatos por las causas que impone la ley.   

La Ley 15-19, de régimen electoral, establece que luego de admitida una candidatura “no podrá ser retirada ni rectificada por el partido o la agrupación que la hubiere presentado, salvo el caso de que uno o varios de los candidatos (as) comprendidos en ella renunciaren, fallecieren, quedaren incapacitados o fueren declinados”.   En esos casos,  la nueva propuesta de candidatura deberá hacerla el organismo directivo correspondiente del partido o la agrupación que la sustente.

Cuando se conjuga alguno de esos factores después de impresas las boletas,  los votos que sean emitidos a favor de esos  candidatos serán computados en favor de los reemplazantes.

En el aspecto administrativo, las juntas electorales están subordinadas a la JCE, que es  la máxima autoridad en materia de administración y organización de los procesos electorales.  

La Ley 15-19 (art.20) faculta al presidente de la JCE para  asegurar el funcionamiento de las juntas electorales, garantizar que cumplan con la correcta aplicación de las disposiciones legales y reglamentarias y velar porque se reúnan con la frecuencia necesaria para el cabal cumplimiento de sus atribuciones.

Además, disponer todo lo relativo a la adquisición, la preparación y el suministro del equipo y los impresos, materiales y útiles de todo género que sean necesarios para la ejecución de la presente ley y para el buen funcionamiento de las juntas y colegios electorales.

ASPECTOS

Composición Están integradas por tres personas, un presidente y dos vocales, cada uno con dos suplentes, excepto la del Distrito Nacional, que la componen un presidente y cuatro vocales. Su designación compete a la JCE.

Requisitos En cuanto a formación académica, solo se les exige ser bachiller, pero el presidente debe ser abogado, dado los conflictos contenciosos electorales que tienen que dirimir por asuntos de candidaturas. Otros requisitos son ser mayor de 25 años, estar domiciliado en el municipio y estar en el pleno goce de los derechos civiles y gozar de buena reputación.

Administrativos Para los asuntos administrativos, cada junta tiene un secretario, nombrado por la JCE por un período de cuatro años.

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